ASPRIN has been proven to be effective in reducing the risk for cardiovascular events; however, patients with diabetes are a unique population that requires special considerations before treatment. While aspirin therapy is recommended, further exploration into dosing strategies, stronger antiplatelet therapy and the clinical interaction between aspirin and patients with diabetes is essential.
“A landmark stage published in 1990 really set the stage as to why diabetics are different and why antiplatelet therapy may be effective in this population,” Jeffrey S. Berger, MD, of the NYU Cardiac and Vascular Institute at the NYU Langone Medical Center in New York, said during a presentation. “Compared with non-diabetics, diabetics had greater platelet activity.” He was speaking at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) 60th Annual Scientific Sessions in New Orleans earlier this week.
Berger noted that one study currently being conducted at NYU suggests that markers of platelet activity correspond well with an increasing prevalence of diabetes. Data from other trials support this association, and these results raised an important question: Can measuring platelet activity prevent a future event? At present, this question remains unanswered but warrants further investigation, he said.
A Closer Look
In addition, physicians must consider dosing when treating with aspirin. Berger explained that aspirin inhibits COX-1 and, thus, reduces amounts of platelet activation and vasal constriction. However, aspirin also reportedly inhibits prostacyclin, which causes the opposite effect on thromboxane. Therefore, Berger emphasized that physicians be careful not to prescribe too much aspirin, even among patients with diabetes.
Many physicians believe that patients with diabetes respond differently to aspirin than those without the disease. Berger pointed out that this is a misconception, however, and cited data from one study indicating no significant differences in aspirin’s interaction in patients with diabetes compared with those without the disease. Most importantly, he said, research showed no significant differences in how aspirin prevents cardiovascular (CV) events between patients with the disease and those without.
Despite aspirin’s efficacy, the medication has been linked with serious adverse events, such as hemorrhagic stroke, with research showing a low number needed to treat and a low number needed to harm.
“Thinking about it this way, for every 1,000 patients treated for 5 years, three ischemic events are avoided, but three major bleeds are caused,” Berger said. “So when you’re thinking about who should get aspirin, you should think about the absolute benefit and the absolute risk.”
Because patients with diabetes are a special population, researchers and physicians should consider whether stronger antiplatelet therapies are required. Berger said future studies must take other medications into account. Statins, fish oil and ACE inhibitors, for example, have antiplatelet activity and this effect may be sufficient for patients with diabetes.
He also noted that dosing strategies may have to be altered, such as administering aspirin twice a day instead of once daily. Additionally, improved tools for monitoring aspirin’s effect on preventing CV events would also be extremely valuable, according to Berger.
“There is no significant clinical interaction between diabetics and non-diabetics regarding the effect of aspirin, how diabetics may need a different strategy of dosing or a stronger antiplatelet therapy, and I think future clinical trials should address these issues,” Berger said.
Commenting, Rhonda Cooper-DeHoff, Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmacotherapy and Translational Research at the Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine, University of Florida, said: “Dr. Berger raised some very provocative points, particularly about what dose of aspirin should be used. The fact that he showed data that suggest that a lower dose of 81 mg may not be as effective as we think in patients with diabetes is an important take-home message. I don’t think that message is really out there.
“The other very provocative point he raised is that we need better tools to monitor the effect of aspirin like we have to monitor the effect of cholesterol-lowering and blood pressure-lowering drugs. We are really missing that with aspirin. Some of the focus for future trials that he discussed would be incredibly useful to the overall care for the patient with diabetes.”
Reported by Endocrine Today